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Without plate tectonics to dissipate heat from its mantle, Venus instead undergoes a cyclical process in which mantle temperatures rise until they reach a critical level that weakens the crust.

Objects with less than a certain kinetic energy are slowed so much by the atmosphere that they do not create an impact crater. The stratigraphically oldest tessera terrains have consistently lower thermal emissivity than the surrounding basaltic plains measured by Venus Express and Magellan , indicating a different, possibly a more felsic , mineral assemblage.

However, the nature of tessera terrains is far from certain. Without seismic data or knowledge of its moment of inertia , little direct information is available about the internal structure and geochemistry of Venus.

Like that of Earth, the Venusian core is at least partially liquid because the two planets have been cooling at about the same rate.

This results in reduced heat loss from the planet, preventing it from cooling and providing a likely explanation for its lack of an internally generated magnetic field.

Venus has an extremely dense atmosphere composed of This temperature is higher than that used for sterilization.

Venus' atmosphere is extremely enriched of primordial noble gases compared to that of Earth. An unusually large comet impact [68] or accretion of a more massive primary atmosphere from solar nebula [69] have been proposed to explain the enrichment.

However, the atmosphere is also depleted of radiogenic argon, a proxy to mantle degassing, suggesting an early shutdown of major magmatism.

Thermal inertia and the transfer of heat by winds in the lower atmosphere mean that the temperature of Venus' surface does not vary significantly between the planet's two hemispheres, those facing and not facing the Sun, despite Venus' extremely slow rotation.

Winds at the surface are slow, moving at a few kilometres per hour, but because of the high density of the atmosphere at the surface, they exert a significant amount of force against obstructions, and transport dust and small stones across the surface.

This alone would make it difficult for a human to walk through, even without the heat, pressure, and lack of oxygen. Above the dense CO 2 layer are thick clouds, consisting mainly of sulfuric acid , which is formed by sulfur dioxide and water through a chemical reaction resulting in sulfuric acid hydrate.

Clouds at different levels have different compositions and particle size distributions. The permanent cloud cover means that although Venus is closer than Earth to the Sun, it receives less sunlight on the ground.

The surface of Venus is effectively isothermal ; it retains a constant temperature not only between the two hemispheres but between the equator and the poles.

This substance likely formed from a similar process to snow, albeit at a far higher temperature. Too volatile to condense on the surface, it rose in gaseous form to higher elevations, where it is cooler and could precipitate.

The identity of this substance is not known with certainty, but speculation has ranged from elemental tellurium to lead sulfide galena.

Although Venus has no seasons as such, in astronomers identified a cyclical variation in sunlight absorption by the atmosphere, possibly caused by opaque, absorbing particles suspended in the upper clouds.

The variation causes observed changes in the speed of Venus' zonal winds, and appears to rise and fall in time with the Sun's year sunspot cycle.

The existence of lightning in the atmosphere of Venus has been controversial [90] since the first suspected bursts were detected by the Soviet Venera probes [91] [92] [93] In —07, Venus Express clearly detected whistler mode waves , the signatures of lightning.

Their intermittent appearance indicates a pattern associated with weather activity. According to these measurements, the lightning rate is at least half of that on Earth, [94] however other instruments have not detected lightning at all.

In , Venus Express discovered that a huge double atmospheric vortex exists at the south pole. In December , and to a lesser extent in April and May , researchers working on Japan's Akatsuki mission observed bow shapes in the atmosphere of Venus.

This was considered direct evidence of the existence of perhaps the largest stationary gravity waves in the solar system.

In , Venera 4 found Venus' magnetic field to be much weaker than that of Earth. This magnetic field is induced by an interaction between the ionosphere and the solar wind , [] [] rather than by an internal dynamo as in the Earth's core.

Venus' small induced magnetosphere provides negligible protection to the atmosphere against cosmic radiation. The lack of an intrinsic magnetic field at Venus was surprising, given that it is similar to Earth in size and was expected also to contain a dynamo at its core.

A dynamo requires three things: a conducting liquid, rotation, and convection. The core is thought to be electrically conductive and, although its rotation is often thought to be too slow, simulations show it is adequate to produce a dynamo.

On Earth, convection occurs in the liquid outer layer of the core because the bottom of the liquid layer is much higher in temperature than the top.

On Venus, a global resurfacing event may have shut down plate tectonics and led to a reduced heat flux through the crust.

This would cause the mantle temperature to increase, thereby reducing the heat flux out of the core. As a result, no internal geodynamo is available to drive a magnetic field.

Instead, the heat from the core is reheating the crust. One possibility is that Venus has no solid inner core, [] or that its core is not cooling, so that the entire liquid part of the core is at approximately the same temperature.

Another possibility is that its core has already completely solidified. The state of the core is highly dependent on the concentration of sulfur , which is unknown at present.

The weak magnetosphere around Venus means that the solar wind is interacting directly with its outer atmosphere.

Here, ions of hydrogen and oxygen are being created by the dissociation of neutral molecules from ultraviolet radiation.

The solar wind then supplies energy that gives some of these ions sufficient velocity to escape Venus' gravity field. This erosion process results in a steady loss of low-mass hydrogen, helium, and oxygen ions, whereas higher-mass molecules, such as carbon dioxide, are more likely to be retained.

Atmospheric erosion by the solar wind probably led to the loss of most of Venus' water during the first billion years after it formed.

Venus orbits the Sun at an average distance of about 0. Although all planetary orbits are elliptical , Venus' orbit is the closest to circular , with an eccentricity of less than 0.

This means that Mercury is actually the planet that is closest to Earth a plurality of the time. All the planets in the Solar System orbit the Sun in an anticlockwise direction as viewed from above Earth's north pole.

Because its rotation is so slow, Venus is very close to spherical. Venus' equator rotates at 6. Venus may have formed from the solar nebula with a different rotation period and obliquity, reaching its current state because of chaotic spin changes caused by planetary perturbations and tidal effects on its dense atmosphere, a change that would have occurred over the course of billions of years.

The rotation period of Venus may represent an equilibrium state between tidal locking to the Sun's gravitation, which tends to slow rotation, and an atmospheric tide created by solar heating of the thick Venusian atmosphere.

Venus has no natural satellites. Alex Alemi's and David Stevenson 's study of models of the early Solar System at the California Institute of Technology shows Venus likely had at least one moon created by a huge impact event billions of years ago.

An alternative explanation for the lack of satellites is the effect of strong solar tides, which can destabilize large satellites orbiting the inner terrestrial planets.

To the naked eye , Venus appears as a white point of light brighter than any other planet or star apart from the Sun. Venus "overtakes" Earth every days as it orbits the Sun.

Its greater maximum elongation means it is visible in dark skies long after sunset. As the brightest point-like object in the sky, Venus is a commonly misreported " unidentified flying object ".

As it orbits the Sun, Venus displays phases like those of the Moon in a telescopic view. The planet appears as a small and "full" disc when it is on the opposite side of the Sun at superior conjunction.

Venus shows a larger disc and "quarter phase" at its maximum elongations from the Sun, and appears its brightest in the night sky. The planet presents a much larger thin "crescent" in telescopic views as it passes along the near side between Earth and the Sun.

Venus displays its largest size and "new phase" when it is between Earth and the Sun at inferior conjunction. Its atmosphere is visible through telescopes by the halo of sunlight refracted around it.

The Venusian orbit is slightly inclined relative to Earth's orbit; thus, when the planet passes between Earth and the Sun, it usually does not cross the face of the Sun.

Transits of Venus occur when the planet's inferior conjunction coincides with its presence in the plane of Earth's orbit. The latest pair was June 8, and June 5—6, The transit could be watched live from many online outlets or observed locally with the right equipment and conditions.

The preceding pair of transits occurred in December and December ; the following pair will occur in December and December Historically, transits of Venus were important, because they allowed astronomers to determine the size of the astronomical unit , and hence the size of the Solar System as shown by Horrocks in The pentagram of Venus is the path that Venus makes as observed from Earth.

The ratio is approximate. Naked eye observations of Venus during daylight hours exist in several anecdotes and records. Astronomer Edmund Halley calculated its maximum naked eye brightness in , when many Londoners were alarmed by its appearance in the daytime.

French emperor Napoleon Bonaparte once witnessed a daytime apparition of the planet while at a reception in Luxembourg. A long-standing mystery of Venus observations is the so-called ashen light —an apparent weak illumination of its dark side, seen when the planet is in the crescent phase.

The first claimed observation of ashen light was made in , but the existence of the illumination has never been reliably confirmed. Observers have speculated it may result from electrical activity in the Venusian atmosphere, but it could be illusory, resulting from the physiological effect of observing a bright, crescent-shaped object.

Because the movements of Venus appear to be discontinuous it disappears due to its proximity to the sun, for many days at a time, and then reappears on the other horizon , some cultures did not recognize Venus as single entity; [] instead, they assumed it to be two separate stars on each horizon: the morning and evening star.

The ancient Greeks also initially believed Venus to be two separate stars: Phosphorus , the morning star, and Hesperus , the evening star.

In the second century, in his astronomical treatise Almagest , Ptolemy theorized that both Mercury and Venus are located between the Sun and the Earth.

The 11th-century Persian astronomer Avicenna claimed to have observed the transit of Venus , [] which later astronomers took as confirmation of Ptolemy's theory.

When Venus is furthest from the Sun in the sky, it shows a half-lit phase , and when it is closest to the Sun in the sky, it shows as a crescent or full phase.

This could be possible only if Venus orbited the Sun, and this was among the first observations to clearly contradict the Ptolemaic geocentric model that the Solar System was concentric and centred on Earth.

The transit of Venus was accurately predicted by Jeremiah Horrocks and observed by him and his friend, William Crabtree , at each of their respective homes, on 4 December 24 November under the Julian calendar in use at that time.

The atmosphere of Venus was discovered in by Russian polymath Mikhail Lomonosov. He correctly surmised this was due to scattering of sunlight in a dense atmosphere.

Later, American astronomer Chester Smith Lyman observed a complete ring around the dark side of the planet when it was at inferior conjunction , providing further evidence for an atmosphere.

Its almost featureless disc gave no hint what its surface might be like, and it was only with the development of spectroscopic , radar and ultraviolet observations that more of its secrets were revealed.

The first ultraviolet observations were carried out in the s, when Frank E. Ross found that ultraviolet photographs revealed considerable detail that was absent in visible and infrared radiation.

He suggested this was due to a dense, yellow lower atmosphere with high cirrus clouds above it. Spectroscopic observations in the s gave the first clues about the Venusian rotation.

Vesto Slipher tried to measure the Doppler shift of light from Venus, but found he could not detect any rotation.

He surmised the planet must have a much longer rotation period than had previously been thought. Radar observations of Venus were first carried out in the s, and provided the first measurements of the rotation period, which were close to the modern value.

Radar observations in the s revealed details of the Venusian surface for the first time. The observations also revealed a bright region attributed to mountains, which was called Maxwell Montes.

The first robotic space probe mission to Venus, and the first to any planet, began with the Soviet Venera program in On 18 October , the Soviet Venera 4 successfully entered the atmosphere and deployed science experiments.

In , Mariner 10 swung by Venus on its way to Mercury and took ultraviolet photographs of the clouds, revealing the extraordinarily high wind speeds in the Venusian atmosphere.

In , the Soviet Venera 9 and 10 landers transmitted the first images from the surface of Venus, which were in black and white.

In the first colour images of the surface were obtained with the Soviet Venera 13 and 14 landers. Equipped with seven scientific instruments, Venus Express provided unprecedented long-term observation of Venus' atmosphere.

ESA concluded that mission in December It would be controlled by a mechanical computer and driven by wind power.

Venus is a primary feature of the night sky, and so has been of remarkable importance in mythology , astrology and fiction throughout history and in different cultures.

In Sumerian religion , Inanna was associated with the planet Venus. The planet Venus appears to make a similar descent, setting in the West and then rising again in the East.

Classical poets such as Homer , Sappho , Ovid and Virgil spoke of the star and its light. Shukra which is used in Indian Vedic astrology [] means "clear, pure" or "brightness, clearness" in Sanskrit.

One of the nine Navagraha , it is held to affect wealth, pleasure and reproduction; it was the son of Bhrgu , preceptor of the Daityas, and guru of the Asuras.

Venus is known as Kejora in Indonesian and Malaysian Malay. The Maya considered Venus to be the most important celestial body after the Sun and Moon.

The Ancient Egyptians and Greeks believed Venus to be two separate bodies, a morning star and an evening star.

The Egyptians knew the morning star as Tioumoutiri and the evening star as Ouaiti. With the invention of the telescope, the idea that Venus was a physical world and possible destination began to take form.

The impenetrable Venusian cloud cover gave science fiction writers free rein to speculate on conditions at its surface; all the more so when early observations showed that not only was it similar in size to Earth, it possessed a substantial atmosphere.

Closer to the Sun than Earth, the planet was frequently depicted as warmer, but still habitable by humans. Findings from the first missions to Venus showed the reality to be quite different, and brought this particular genre to an end.

The astronomical symbol for Venus is the same as that used in biology for the female sex: a circle with a small cross beneath. Speculation on the possibility of life on Venus's surface decreased significantly after the early s, when it became clear that the conditions are extreme compared to those on Earth.

Venus's extreme temperature and atmospheric pressure make water-based life as currently known unlikely. Some scientists have speculated that thermoacidophilic extremophile microorganisms might exist in the cooler, acidic upper layers of the Venusian atmosphere.

Morowitz suggested in a Nature article that tiny objects detected in Venus's clouds might be organisms similar to Earth's bacteria which are of approximately the same size :.

The atmospheric pressure and temperature fifty kilometres above the surface are similar to those at Earth's surface.

This has led to proposals to use aerostats lighter-than-air balloons for initial exploration and ultimately for permanent "floating cities" in the Venusian atmosphere.

In August , astronomers led by Yeon Joo Lee reported that newly discovered long-term pattern of absorbance and albedo changes in the atmosphere of the planet Venus are caused by "unknown absorbers", which may be chemicals or even large colonies of microorganisms high up in the atmosphere of the planet.

In September , a team of astronomers led by Dr Jane Greaves from Cardiff University announced the likely detection of phosphine , a gas not known to be produced by any known chemical processes on the Venusian surface or atmosphere, in the upper levels of the planet's clouds.

The discovery prompted NASA administrator Jim Bridenstine to publicly call for a new focus on the study of Venus, describing the phosphine find as "the most significant development yet in building the case for life off Earth".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Second planet from the Sun in the Solar System. This article is about the planet.

For the deity, see Venus mythology. For other uses, see Venus disambiguation. Venus in contrast-enhanced false colour , February [a].

Semi-major axis. Orbital period. Synodic period. Average orbital speed. Mean anomaly. Surface area. Mean density.

Surface gravity. Escape velocity. Sidereal rotation period. Axial tilt. Apparent magnitude. Angular diameter.

Surface pressure. Following the right-hand rule for prograde rotation puts Ishtar Terra in the southern hemisphere and makes the axial tilt Main article: Mapping of Venus.

Planet Venus - images from Mariner 10 newly processed in Enhanced contrast on the right. Main articles: Geology of Venus and Volcanology of Venus.

Cloud structure in the Venusian atmosphere in , revealed by observations in the two ultraviolet bands by Akatsuki.

False-color global radar view of Venus without the clouds from Magellan between and Main article: Atmosphere of Venus.

Atmospheric composition. Absorption spectrum of a simple gas mixture corresponding to Earth's atmosphere. Green colour — water vapour, red — carbon dioxide, WN — wavenumber other colours have different meanings, shorter wavelengths on the right, longer on the left.

Main article: Orbit of Venus. Main article: Phases of Venus. Main articles: Transit of Venus and Transit of Venus, Main article: Observations and explorations of Venus.

Main article: Venus in culture. See also: Venus in fiction. Main article: Venus symbol. Main article: Life on Venus. See also: Colonization of Venus.

Solar System portal. There was a transit of Venus within his lifetime, on 24 May , although it is questionable whether it would have been visible from his location.

This particular processing of the image was published in June The entire planet is covered by a thick atmosphere which obscures its surface with thick sulfuric acid clouds.

Lexico UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Oxford English Dictionary 3rd ed. September Subscription or UK public library membership required.

February Astronomy and Astrophysics. Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 12 October Archived from the original on 17 April Retrieved 10 April Results are instantaneous osculating values at the precise J epoch.

Kenneth; Archinal, Brent A. Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy. Bibcode : CeMDA.. May Bibcode : Icar..

Archived from the original PDF on 26 May Retrieved 26 August International Astronomical Union. Retrieved 12 April July October Astronomy and Computing.

Archived from the original on 11 June Retrieved 13 June Fourmilab Switzerland. Retrieved 19 April Archived from the original on 29 September Retrieved 15 March Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets.

Bibcode : JGRE.. New Scientist. In Beatty, J. The New Solar System 4th ed. Boston: Sky Publishing. European Space Agency. Retrieved 12 July The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy.

Retrieved 4 February National Geographic. Retrieved 14 September Nature Astronomy. The Guardian. Retrieved 16 September Volcanic worlds: exploring the Solar System's volcanoes.

Springer Publishing. Encyclopedia of Science. Retrieved 27 September Encyclopedia of the Solar System 3rd ed.

Bibcode : Sci March Archived from the original PDF on 23 October III Earth, Moon, and Planets. Planetology: Unlocking the Secrets of the Solar System.

National Geographic Society. New York: W. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. Journal of Geophysical Research. Bibcode : JGR Volcanoes of the Solar System.

Cambridge University Press. Houston, Texas. The Magellan Venus Explorer's Guide. California: Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Retrieved 13 January United States Geological Survey. JPL Publication Archived from the original on 24 October Retrieved 22 October Fundamental Astronomy.

Archived from the original on 3 November Retrieved 20 June August Nature Geoscience. Bibcode : NatGe The New York Times. Contest Weight: lbs Off Season: lbs Biceps: 14" Waist: 25" She was among the first amateur websites to employ live streaming video and audio X-rated webcam shows on the net, in fact.

Venus, whose real name is Hope, has been in to weight training since she was just The interest developed from a remarkable sporty background that saw her excel at cross country, swimming and football At 12, encouraged by her elder brother, she tried out for her school football team, quickly becoming the first girl ever to play in the Cambridge Biddy league, eventually making it to an all-star team of guys.

Her coach at the time told reporters: "A lot of guys joked about it and teased her. But she knocked quite a few of them down in practice and they knew she was a tough cookie.

And then the same thing happened in the games. The epithet stuck when she took up powerlifting. At 16 years old, while a student at Leesville High School, Venus broke three Louisiana state records for her weight class, with a set of lifts which ranked her among the top 5 in the US.

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Land Of Venus Video

A Flight Over the Surface of Planet Venus

The ratio is approximate. Naked eye observations of Venus during daylight hours exist in several anecdotes and records. Astronomer Edmund Halley calculated its maximum naked eye brightness in , when many Londoners were alarmed by its appearance in the daytime.

French emperor Napoleon Bonaparte once witnessed a daytime apparition of the planet while at a reception in Luxembourg. A long-standing mystery of Venus observations is the so-called ashen light —an apparent weak illumination of its dark side, seen when the planet is in the crescent phase.

The first claimed observation of ashen light was made in , but the existence of the illumination has never been reliably confirmed.

Observers have speculated it may result from electrical activity in the Venusian atmosphere, but it could be illusory, resulting from the physiological effect of observing a bright, crescent-shaped object.

Because the movements of Venus appear to be discontinuous it disappears due to its proximity to the sun, for many days at a time, and then reappears on the other horizon , some cultures did not recognize Venus as single entity; [] instead, they assumed it to be two separate stars on each horizon: the morning and evening star.

The ancient Greeks also initially believed Venus to be two separate stars: Phosphorus , the morning star, and Hesperus , the evening star. In the second century, in his astronomical treatise Almagest , Ptolemy theorized that both Mercury and Venus are located between the Sun and the Earth.

The 11th-century Persian astronomer Avicenna claimed to have observed the transit of Venus , [] which later astronomers took as confirmation of Ptolemy's theory.

When Venus is furthest from the Sun in the sky, it shows a half-lit phase , and when it is closest to the Sun in the sky, it shows as a crescent or full phase.

This could be possible only if Venus orbited the Sun, and this was among the first observations to clearly contradict the Ptolemaic geocentric model that the Solar System was concentric and centred on Earth.

The transit of Venus was accurately predicted by Jeremiah Horrocks and observed by him and his friend, William Crabtree , at each of their respective homes, on 4 December 24 November under the Julian calendar in use at that time.

The atmosphere of Venus was discovered in by Russian polymath Mikhail Lomonosov. He correctly surmised this was due to scattering of sunlight in a dense atmosphere.

Later, American astronomer Chester Smith Lyman observed a complete ring around the dark side of the planet when it was at inferior conjunction , providing further evidence for an atmosphere.

Its almost featureless disc gave no hint what its surface might be like, and it was only with the development of spectroscopic , radar and ultraviolet observations that more of its secrets were revealed.

The first ultraviolet observations were carried out in the s, when Frank E. Ross found that ultraviolet photographs revealed considerable detail that was absent in visible and infrared radiation.

He suggested this was due to a dense, yellow lower atmosphere with high cirrus clouds above it. Spectroscopic observations in the s gave the first clues about the Venusian rotation.

Vesto Slipher tried to measure the Doppler shift of light from Venus, but found he could not detect any rotation.

He surmised the planet must have a much longer rotation period than had previously been thought. Radar observations of Venus were first carried out in the s, and provided the first measurements of the rotation period, which were close to the modern value.

Radar observations in the s revealed details of the Venusian surface for the first time. The observations also revealed a bright region attributed to mountains, which was called Maxwell Montes.

The first robotic space probe mission to Venus, and the first to any planet, began with the Soviet Venera program in On 18 October , the Soviet Venera 4 successfully entered the atmosphere and deployed science experiments.

In , Mariner 10 swung by Venus on its way to Mercury and took ultraviolet photographs of the clouds, revealing the extraordinarily high wind speeds in the Venusian atmosphere.

In , the Soviet Venera 9 and 10 landers transmitted the first images from the surface of Venus, which were in black and white.

In the first colour images of the surface were obtained with the Soviet Venera 13 and 14 landers. Equipped with seven scientific instruments, Venus Express provided unprecedented long-term observation of Venus' atmosphere.

ESA concluded that mission in December It would be controlled by a mechanical computer and driven by wind power. Venus is a primary feature of the night sky, and so has been of remarkable importance in mythology , astrology and fiction throughout history and in different cultures.

In Sumerian religion , Inanna was associated with the planet Venus. The planet Venus appears to make a similar descent, setting in the West and then rising again in the East.

Classical poets such as Homer , Sappho , Ovid and Virgil spoke of the star and its light. Shukra which is used in Indian Vedic astrology [] means "clear, pure" or "brightness, clearness" in Sanskrit.

One of the nine Navagraha , it is held to affect wealth, pleasure and reproduction; it was the son of Bhrgu , preceptor of the Daityas, and guru of the Asuras.

Venus is known as Kejora in Indonesian and Malaysian Malay. The Maya considered Venus to be the most important celestial body after the Sun and Moon.

The Ancient Egyptians and Greeks believed Venus to be two separate bodies, a morning star and an evening star.

The Egyptians knew the morning star as Tioumoutiri and the evening star as Ouaiti. With the invention of the telescope, the idea that Venus was a physical world and possible destination began to take form.

The impenetrable Venusian cloud cover gave science fiction writers free rein to speculate on conditions at its surface; all the more so when early observations showed that not only was it similar in size to Earth, it possessed a substantial atmosphere.

Closer to the Sun than Earth, the planet was frequently depicted as warmer, but still habitable by humans. Findings from the first missions to Venus showed the reality to be quite different, and brought this particular genre to an end.

The astronomical symbol for Venus is the same as that used in biology for the female sex: a circle with a small cross beneath.

Speculation on the possibility of life on Venus's surface decreased significantly after the early s, when it became clear that the conditions are extreme compared to those on Earth.

Venus's extreme temperature and atmospheric pressure make water-based life as currently known unlikely.

Some scientists have speculated that thermoacidophilic extremophile microorganisms might exist in the cooler, acidic upper layers of the Venusian atmosphere.

Morowitz suggested in a Nature article that tiny objects detected in Venus's clouds might be organisms similar to Earth's bacteria which are of approximately the same size :.

The atmospheric pressure and temperature fifty kilometres above the surface are similar to those at Earth's surface. This has led to proposals to use aerostats lighter-than-air balloons for initial exploration and ultimately for permanent "floating cities" in the Venusian atmosphere.

In August , astronomers led by Yeon Joo Lee reported that newly discovered long-term pattern of absorbance and albedo changes in the atmosphere of the planet Venus are caused by "unknown absorbers", which may be chemicals or even large colonies of microorganisms high up in the atmosphere of the planet.

In September , a team of astronomers led by Dr Jane Greaves from Cardiff University announced the likely detection of phosphine , a gas not known to be produced by any known chemical processes on the Venusian surface or atmosphere, in the upper levels of the planet's clouds.

The discovery prompted NASA administrator Jim Bridenstine to publicly call for a new focus on the study of Venus, describing the phosphine find as "the most significant development yet in building the case for life off Earth".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Second planet from the Sun in the Solar System. This article is about the planet. For the deity, see Venus mythology.

For other uses, see Venus disambiguation. Venus in contrast-enhanced false colour , February [a].

Semi-major axis. Orbital period. Synodic period. Average orbital speed. Mean anomaly. Surface area. Mean density. Surface gravity.

Escape velocity. Sidereal rotation period. Axial tilt. Apparent magnitude. Angular diameter. Surface pressure. Following the right-hand rule for prograde rotation puts Ishtar Terra in the southern hemisphere and makes the axial tilt Main article: Mapping of Venus.

Planet Venus - images from Mariner 10 newly processed in Enhanced contrast on the right. Main articles: Geology of Venus and Volcanology of Venus.

Cloud structure in the Venusian atmosphere in , revealed by observations in the two ultraviolet bands by Akatsuki.

False-color global radar view of Venus without the clouds from Magellan between and Main article: Atmosphere of Venus. Atmospheric composition.

Absorption spectrum of a simple gas mixture corresponding to Earth's atmosphere. Green colour — water vapour, red — carbon dioxide, WN — wavenumber other colours have different meanings, shorter wavelengths on the right, longer on the left.

Main article: Orbit of Venus. Main article: Phases of Venus. Main articles: Transit of Venus and Transit of Venus, Main article: Observations and explorations of Venus.

Main article: Venus in culture. See also: Venus in fiction. Main article: Venus symbol. Main article: Life on Venus. See also: Colonization of Venus.

Solar System portal. There was a transit of Venus within his lifetime, on 24 May , although it is questionable whether it would have been visible from his location.

This particular processing of the image was published in June The entire planet is covered by a thick atmosphere which obscures its surface with thick sulfuric acid clouds.

Lexico UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Oxford English Dictionary 3rd ed. September Subscription or UK public library membership required.

February Astronomy and Astrophysics. Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 12 October Archived from the original on 17 April Retrieved 10 April Results are instantaneous osculating values at the precise J epoch.

Kenneth; Archinal, Brent A. Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy. Bibcode : CeMDA.. May Bibcode : Icar.. Archived from the original PDF on 26 May Retrieved 26 August International Astronomical Union.

Retrieved 12 April July October Astronomy and Computing. Archived from the original on 11 June Retrieved 13 June Fourmilab Switzerland.

Retrieved 19 April Archived from the original on 29 September Retrieved 15 March Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets.

Bibcode : JGRE.. New Scientist. In Beatty, J. The New Solar System 4th ed. Boston: Sky Publishing. European Space Agency. Retrieved 12 July The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy.

Retrieved 4 February National Geographic. Retrieved 14 September Nature Astronomy. The Guardian. Retrieved 16 September Volcanic worlds: exploring the Solar System's volcanoes.

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